643

MARINUS THE TYRIAN; HIS OIKOUMENE OF 225 DEGREES LONGITUDE: GEOGRAPHIKE HYPHEGESIS; BOOK 1, CHAPTERS 11 & 12, PTOLEMY.

 This paper is a continuation of research within my texts Cp2 and Cp3. In his Geographike Hyphegesis, Ptolemy sets down the length of the oikoumene attributable to Marinus the Tyrian. In so doing we find two major pointers which can be utilised to ascertain how Marinus calculated this length.

Firstly, as already evidenced by research in texts Es1, Es2 and Cp3, the Eratosthian Stade of c157.5 metres is used by both Marinus and Ptolemy with their mapping of at least India.

Secondly, in the text of Ptolemy we read that the two eastern distance measures, to and from the Stone Tower are itinerary measures, and thus it is possible to confirm that Marinus has used the same methodology as Eratosthenes of Cyrene to calculate and thus establish his oikoumene; Itinerary measures.

12 A4 pages and 7 full colour diagram maps

September 2010
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645

THE MAPS OF MARINUS THE TYRIAN: A RECONSTRUCTION WITH INFORMATION TAKEN FROM GEOGRAPHIKE HYPHEGESIS, BOOK 1, CHAPTERS 6-20, BY CLAUDIUS PTOLEMY

The map of Marinus the Tyrian is in fact the map used by Claudius Ptolemy but drawn on a different graticule. A simple investigation of the text of Claudius Ptolemy reveals that fact. Also indicated, despite the protestations by Ptolemy concerning the length of the oikoumene given by Marinus, is the fact that Ptolemy actually uses the same length, although he tries to hide the fact, to determine his oikoumene of only 180 degrees.

16 A4 pages and 13 full colour diagram maps

September 2010
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653 657 1124

PAULUS OROSIUS, “HISTORY AGAINST THE PAGANS” – AN ANALYSIS OF BOOK 1 GEOGRAPHICAL TEXT

Paulus Orosius, born c375CE, was a Christian historian who perceived that the Roman Empire was in decline and the new religion of Christianity was in the ascendance. To assert that point he was charged with writing a History to show that the Christians were by no means responsible for the catastrophes which had taken place under pagan (Roman) rule.

In c313 CE the Edict of Mediolanum (Milan) was in favour of equality for Christians and it eliminated the cults of the Roman State. By c395CE there are established two Roman Empires, those of the East and West, with Constantinople as the eastern capital. But as with later texts written by Monks (Tp1), he begins his ‘History’ with a complete description of the known world. It is only that text which is herein analysed and can be shown to be an attempt to describe the oikoumene c400CE from east to west with the three continents as divided in the ancient Greek world of c600BCE. But in many instances it is a lightweight description. However, there are facets of that description which are intriguing, particularly in their provenance.

19 A4 pages and 14 full colour diagrams

May 2012
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1145 4619

THE INTERACTIONS OF ROUTES TAKEN BY KING HENRY II, 1171; GERALD OF WALES, 1188 AND THE GOUGH MAP C1400.

Many papers have commented upon and endeavoured to determine the “red line” routes (?) on the Gough Map of c1400AD. There are 34 individual lines which have “mileage” (?) appended.

However, after the Norman Invasion and the establishment of many “ecclesiastical” houses, Pilgrimage, Royal Tours/Wars, Army movements and peregrinations took place. One such “war” was the visit of Henry II to Ireland, 1171/1172 and then the grand tour by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Baldwin of Forde accompanied by Gerald Of Wales, 1188, circumnavigating the then Welsh Kingdom from Hereford in a clockwise direction. The route of Henry II from England to Wales and thence Ireland is partly the same as the later peregrination mentioned above. That route is primarily by Roman Roads which for an army would be preferred when compared to the bye-ways and tracks people and small carts could use.

Thus by comparing the three routes, two being descriptive and one a map the usage of the Roman Roads c1170/1190 can be evaluated and then compared to the closely matching routes on the map.

However, we must not lose sight of the fact that Matthew Paris indicated a peregrination route on three of his maps c1250AD

The text is 22, A4 pages and contains 22, A4 & A3 diagrams

January 2024
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4648

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