231 518

RESEARCH INTO THE METHODOLOGY OF CLAUDIUS PTOLEMY: Has computerisation led to a systemic failure in the simple comprehension of the very basic nature of the data in the “Geographia” of Claudius Ptolemy?

Many papers, subject matter cartography, and more particularly those concerning the methodology of Claudius Ptolemy now include the “de rigueur” utilisation of computer programmes, computer generated visualisations and the Star Burst Plots which endeavour to illustrate data comparisons. That this usage of the computer does not of itself appear to offer any additional information to the subject matter and is merely presentational, should perhaps give cause for reconsideration by those authors of its usage.
This paper is not a polemic against the use of computer generated data, which certainly has its place when appropriately used. It is in fact questioning the over complication caused by such usage when simple maps or diagram maps used as the prime research tool would actually explain more.
This paper illustrates that by comparing maps based upon the same projection, and with the use of only simple maps (for that is all that Claudius Ptolemy has bequeathed to us) a fuller understanding of “Geographia” can be gained.

9 A4 pages and 2 full colour diagram maps

April 2010
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526 528 538 1552

LES CARTES PORTOLANES: A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE TECHNICAL SECTIONS, WINDS AND DRAUGHTSMANSHIP USING THE ORIGINAL TEXT ORDER AS THE DETERMINANT.

The text by R J Pujades i Bataller referring to the winds and technical items within Les Cartes Portolanes is contained within pages 473-481 and 513-514. Here-in R J Pujades sets down his research and reasoning for the origination of the physical work entailed in producing a Portolan chart, the process of copying and the possible scales used as a reason for the charts observed sizes. He clearly focuses upon the wind diagrams and its draughtsmanship, but, it can be clearly shown that his reasoning is based upon a false premise. The background graticule can be shown to be the arbiter of the Portolan chart with the copying method to obtain a number of similar charts merely the use of templates. The background graticule assists in the primary positioning of the map, and certainly provides the chart scale.

20 A4 pages and 20 full colour diagram maps

November 2014
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1594 1626

FRANCESCO BECCARI, CHART OF 1403AD BATTISTA BECCARI, CHART OF 1435AD AN ANALYSIS OF AND COMPARISON OF THE CHARTS CONSTRUCTION

The 1403AD Portolan Chart of Francesco Beccari has been studied in a historical and a technical paper. Commented upon as unique for its latitudinal scale and what may be considered a rather self serving, apologetic text for past chart failures, it requires researching.
Ignoring the previous texts for the main analysis of the 1403AD chart, the actual evidence paints a different picture. Thus it is then possible to show by comparison to those texts the technical detail that should have been assessed and thus a more correct conclusion arrived at.
Finally, the 1435AD Portolan Chart of Battista Beccari is also analysed with the obvious necessity of a comparison to the 1403AD Portolan Chart.

12 A4 pages and 20 full colour diagram maps

February 2015
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1650 1676

Simplicity: Drawing a Wind Rose Graticule Utilize just one measurement and straight lines

The wind rose graticule has been shown to be a simple geometric construct based upon the side length ratios of a triangle for angular deviation. The ratio of the squares when drawn is 35: 30: 20: 7 TRU’s (trignometrical ratio units). But what if the charts size and chosen scale does not allow for an easy conversion of the ratio numbers to scale measures? This text is an appendix for the original ChWr/1; Wind Rose Construction text.

March 2015
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199

ATLASES, LCP, A1 TO A14 INVESTIGATED DISTORTIONS, UTTER CONFUSION, COPYING NONSENSE

Having studied a large number of Portolan charts, as the website clearly shows, I was struck by the lack of examination of extant Atlases in the research texts of others. Those Atlases are detailed in Les Cartes Portolanes, pages 69/70, and having just reviewed my research into the work of Petrus Vesconte (ChPV/1) and revisited his Atlases, I decided to review my research including those Atlases and others, not all of them, just the first 14.
However, I did not consider that a short text could contain a complete review of those chosen as I had carried out on the Petrus Vesconte 1313 and 1318 Atlases, but instead concentrated upon the Atlas page containing the Iberian Peninsula, the starting point for the utter confusion which can be shown to exist apropos distance measures and thus the original distortion point for Portolan charts.
As there is generally only one scale bar to each Atlas page, it is thus a simple matter to ascertain the accuracy and measures utilized to draw each sheet. Thus, when a confusion of distance measures is encountered on this one Atlas Page, emanating from a single scale bar, little more than those facts require to be investigated. It also determined that the draughtsmen were not au fait with their subject matter and thus should be considered only copy artist’s, but from what? That does not infer criticism of the artistry to produce these Atlases as they are a feast for the eyes, and illustrate exquisite draughtsmanship but a lack of real knowledge, and confirms they are copies, not original works. How many originals were copied is detailed.

The text is 11, A4 pages and contains 16, A4 diagrams (some are text based).

September 2017
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2193

THE 1500AD “WORLD” CHART ANALYSED JUAN DE LA COSA; MASTER AND SHIP OWNER, & OR JUAN DE LA COSA; CARTOGRAPHER AND SEAMAN

The text is in two distinct sections; firstly an analysis of the chart dated 1500 noted as being by Juan de La Cosa to understand how it was drawn, the measurements used and the probable origination of the data used; and secondly an analysis of the “raw” historical data regarding the “La Cosa” personage and his exploits after stripping out the hyperbole and extravagant overstatements of many authors who have written concerning the whole subject of the exploration of the West Indies.
Both sections are written as stand-alone texts and need not be read as one paper.
This section casts doubt upon the authorship of the Chart and perhaps the date appended, as it appears to have information that was only known after the 1500 date and is thus thought to be 1502 at the earliest as others have suggested, but in fact could be even later. This section also questions the charts origination. The second section is merely the historical facts that can actually be accepted as such. But, as only confirmed fact should be used before accepting circumstantial evidence, and there being little definitive data to go on, speculative texts abound and they must be challenged. Both sections have their own Abstract/Introduction and they are not cross referenced to each other to allow the reader to reach his or her own conclusions from the evidence presented.

The part one text is 13, A4 pages and contains 28 A4 diagrams. Pages 1 to 13.
The part two text is 8, A4 pages and contains 1, A4 diagram, D01 from above. Pages 14 to 21.

March 2018
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2224

JUAN DE LA COSA; MASTER AND SHIP OWNER, & OR JUAN DE LA COSA; CARTOGRAPHER AND SEAMAN ABSTRACT FOR PART TWO TEXT; THE HISTORY

Having read many texts concerning the Columbus exploits and thus knowing of Juan de La Cosa from those texts and his c1500 chart, I was totally bemused by the chauvinistic approach of many authors and how in each text new titles appeared when the historical facts did not actually agree. It appeared to me to be a little massaging and improving the data.
Thus I decided, but against my better judgement and contrary to my normal approach of analysing charts and maps, to explore at the most basic level the history appertaining to Juan de La Cosa. As has been stated by others, there is little hard evidence (or none in reality) regarding him prior to 1492. Even where he was born, his home village has been guessed by some when it is clearly written in a ships listing, but to establish the credentials of the c1500 chart the investigation is necessary.
In the first section I analysed the chart by draughtsmanship detail and now the second part is an analysis from confirmed facts with a timeline to establish the whereabouts of and the survey work Juan de La Cosa could have carried out.
Please note that to simplify references I am giving only page numbers from “Christopher Columbus, An Encyclopaedia”, edited by Silvio A Bedini, which was originally published in two volumes in 1992, but re-issued in 1998 as a single volume which is here-in used. I have and have also read numerous other texts and find that the basic facts remain the same throughout with some “gilding the lily” regarding the situation and others stretching facts to breaking point; one is enough!

The part two text is 8, A4 pages and contains 1, A4 diagram, D01 from above. Pages 14 to 21.

March 2018
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2226 2736

ChGEN1 Images

ChGEN/1/D01 ChGEN/1/D02 ChGEN/1/D03 ChGEN/1/D04 ChGEN/1/D05 ChGEN/1/D06 ChGEN/1/D07 ChGEN/1/D08 ChGEN/1/D09 ChGEN/1/D10 ChGEN/1/D11 ChGEN/1/D12 ChGEN/1/D13 ChGEN/1/D14 ChGEN/1/D15 ChGEN/1/D16 ChGEN/1/D17 ChGEN/1/D18 ChGEN/1/D19 ChGEN/1/D20 ChGEN/1/D21 ChGEN/1/D22 ChGEN/1/D23 ChGEN/1/D24 ChGEN/1/D25 ChGEN/1/D26 ChGEN/1/D27 ChGEN/1/D28 ChGEN/1/D29 ChGEN/1/D30 ChGEN/1/D31 ChGEN/1/D32 ChGEN/1/D33 ChGEN/1/D34 ChGEN/1/D35 ChGEN/1/D36 ChGEN/1/D37 ChGEN/1/D38 ChGEN/1/D39 ChGEN/1/D40 ChGEN/1/D41 ChGEN/1/D42 ChGEN/1/D43 ChGEN/1/D44 ChGEN/1/D45 ChGEN/1/D46 ChGEN/1/D47 ChGEN/1/D48 ChGEN/1/D49 ChGEN/1/D50 ChGEN/1/D51 ChGEN/1/D52 ChGEN/1/D53

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2680

GENOA; EXCELLENT MARINERS AND CARTOGRAPHERS, BUT WHENCE CAME THE CARTOGRAPHIC TRAINING?

Read research papers or books concerning Genoese 14th to 16th Century cartography and there is not one text written which investigates how it all happened and uses simple basic facts such as lifespan, training or raison d’être for the origination. The first extant work provable by attribution is that of Petrus Vesconte and his 1311 chart. But he had to be taught the art and that has never been addressed in the myriad of papers written over the last years. Add to that the Carta Pisane, probably 1290 and the Cortona Chart c1300, both of which have doubtful provenance, but by existing they push the date backwards for the training of their authors. Thus this text sets down clearly known facts and dates and uses the life spans attributable to evaluate the overlap of these cartographers and how their charts also spring from a basic pattern/template which is amply illustrated in the second part of this research.

The text is 20 A4 pages and contains 53 A4 Diagrams (originals are all A3, and some interlink to form the complete chart at large scale.)

December 2018
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2945

ANALYSIS OF A GORE SET AND GLOBE DATED 1612/1614; PIETER van den KEERE; PETRUS PLANCIUS + AN APPENDIX WITH MERCATOR’S 1541 GORES!

Searching for information regarding a Globe which I thought had dubious attestation given by J L Stevenson, Tome 2 pp47/49, regarding Petrus Plancius, I was led to the BnF Paris and a set of Gores available under their Gallica system. To my surprise I found them to be wrongly drawn and did not include the three texts quoted by Stevenson. Hence a very fast research project to find the globe ensued whilst I awaited a Portolan Chart scan to arrive.
The outcome of this research is quite surprising to say the least! And, it is merely a quick resume of the facts I have so far discerned requiring a proper research project later.

The appendix is perhaps the most surprising find, geometric errors by Mercator!

The text is 6, A4 pages and 17, A4 diagrams or photos.

July 2019
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3111

1511 ATLAS DEDICATION PAGE BY VESCONTE MAGGIOLO DRAWN IN NAPLES DURING 1510AD

A historical and technical examination of the sinister and dextra parts of the Dedication page, JCB 08658-001, illustrating the Armorials of the titular heads of Corsica on the sinister and a map of Corsica with toponyms and four elaborate monograms on the dextra. It is not a definitive work as it must be further investigated due to the complexity of the subject and a distinct lack of detailed information. Speculative in part it certainly is!

The basic facts are laid down with conclusions where possible regarding the Armorials, but the Map of Corsica and its toponyms is analysed completely and there only exist one or two curious place names that are unknown today. However in comparing this map to others it proves there are always curiosities.

There is also an appendix which discusses the cartographers in Naples c1510.

The text is 11, A4 pages and contains 25, A4 (A3) diagrams

November 2019
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3145

ChAVM2 Images

ChAVM/2/D01 ChAVM/2/D02 ChAVM/2/D03 ChAVM/2/D04 ChAVM/2/D05 ChAVM/2/D06 ChAVM/2/D07 ChAVM/2/D08 ChAVM/2/D09 ChAVM/2/D10 ChAVM/2/D11 ChAVM/2/D12 ChAVM/2/D13 ChAVM/2/D14 ChAVM/2/D15 ChAVM/2/D16 ChAVM/2/D18 ChAVM/2/D19 ChAVM/2/D20 ChAVM/2/D21 ChAVM/2/D22 ChAVM/2/D23 ChAVM/2/D24 ChAVM/2/D25

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3156

VESCONTE MAGGIOLO; ATLAS COMPARISONS NAPLES 1511; NAPLES 1512; GENOA 1519, PLUS DID V. MAGGIOLO TRAIN SALVAT DE PILESTRINA IN THE ART OF CARTOGRAPHY? (3 SECTION TEXT)

Having investigated the JCB held atlas of 1511 to evaluate its geography in text ChAVM/1 and ChAVM/2, this text adds the geographical information from the 1512 atlas held in Parma and the 1519 atlas held in Munich. All three are compared to each other to establish the continuity of their construction.

Thus it is possible to opine that Vesconte Maggiolo had with him on his 1508/1509 journey from Genoa to Naples a Portolan Chart and in all probability a pattern/template with which to construct these atlas pages. They are quite accurate in their comparative state when the scale bars are aligned and they are overlaid one on the other as the diagrams clearly illustrate.

However, this text commences with Section 1 a retrospective analysis of the 1511 JCB atlas page sizes to determine how Vesconte Maggiolo actually scaled certain sheets to fit precisely to the page size of c39 x c57.6 cms. This investigation proves the use of the Roman Uncia for some of the charts construction and also that the charts are in a mathematical ratio of size with a rather extraordinary finale.

Section 2 is then the comparison of the three atlas and their inner workings and illustrates the previous findings of continuity of pattern/template.

Section 3 is a comparison of V. Maggiolo and Salvat de Pilestrina’s work which shows they are probably identical and thus from the same pattern/template drawn in Genoa.

The text is 10, A4 pages and contains 50(51), A4 (A3) diagrams, (one is a double)

December 2019
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3214

ChAVM3 Images

ChAVM/3/D01 ChAVM/3/D01 ChAVM/3/D03 ChAVM/3/D04 ChAVM/3/D05 ChAVM/3/D06 ChAVM/3/D07 ChAVM/3/D08 ChAVM/3/D09 ChAVM/3/D10 ChAVM/3/D11 ChAVM/3/D12 ChAVM/3/D13 ChAVM/3/D14 ChAVM/3/D15 ChAVM/3/D16 ChAVM/3/D17 ChAVM/3/D18 ChAVM/3/D19 ChAVM/3/D20 ChAVM/3/D21 ChAVM/3/D22 ChAVM/3/D23 ChAVM/3/D24 ChAVM/3/D25 ChAVM/3/D26 ChAVM/3/D27 ChAVM/3/D28 ChAVM/3/D29 ChAVM/3/D30 ChAVM/3/D31 ChAVM/3/D32 ChAVM/3/D33 ChAVM/3/D34 ChAVM/3/D35 ChAVM/3/D36 ChAVM/3/D37 ChAVM/3/D38 ChAVM/3/D39 ChAVM/3/D40 ChAVM/3/D41 ChAVM/3/D42 ChAVM/3/D43 ChAVM/3/D44 ChAVM/3/D45 ChAVM/3/D46 ChAVM/3/D47 ChAVM/3/D48 ChAVM/3/D49 ChAVM/3/D50 ChAVM/3/D51

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3749 3741 3821 3833 3881

ChDHa1 Images

ChDHa/1/D01 ChDHa/1/D02 ChDHa/1/D03 ChDHa/1/D04 ChDHa/1/D05 ChDHa/1/D06 ChDHa/1/D07 ChDHa/1/D08 ChDHa/1/D09 ChDHa/1/D10 ChDHa/1/D11 ChDHa/1/D12 ChDHa/1/D13 ChDHa/1/D14 ChDHa/1/D15 ChDHa/1/D16 ChDHa/1/D17 ChDHa/1/D18 ChDHa/1/D19 ChDHa/1/D20 ChDHa/1/D21 ChDHa/1/D22 ChDHa/1/D23 ChDHa/1/D24 ChDHa/1/D25 ChDHa/1/D26 ChDHa/1/D27 ChDHa/1/D28 ChDHa/1/D29 ChDHa/1/D30 ChDHa/1/D31 ChDHa/1/D32 ChDHa/1/D33 ChDHa/1/D34 ChDHa/1/D35 ChDHa/1/D36 ChDHa/1/D37 ChDHa/1/D38

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3883

DIOGO HOMEM, ATLASES FROM 1555-1574 10 OF 13 EXTANT ATLASES INVESTIGATED

An investigation that analyses these 10 atlases and uses as the base guide the Dresden Library Atlas, dated 1568 which has 28 folios and is thus possibly the most expansive atlas produced. It covers the discoveries to that date, the technical data and also includes a World map and the Clima Zones.

Only three atlases have world maps extant and their provenance is investigated.

There already exist two texts, ChDgH/1 and ChRH/1 which discuss works by the Homem Family and should be considered part of this text.

The text is 7, A4 pages and contains 38, A3 diagrams (many larger reduced)

November 2021
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3893

DIOGO HOMEM ATLAS MS 501 INVESTIGATED MORGAN LIBRARY AND MUSEUM, NEW YORK

Having waited several months for photos of the atlas to arrive, as the Library said it was in a poor state of preservation, and the fact that they then sent 26 photos including views of the bindings and covers this atlas was chosen for a singular study. This was mainly because of handwritten texts on the inner bindings of the front and rear leather covers. On first viewing they appeared to contain both good and spurious information and it piqued my curiosity. I had already noted that four of the folios appeared to make a portolan chart and thus an investigation was required as to the original chart that was copied to form the Atlas.

I was not prepared for the research necessary to answer the reasoning for those texts and thus a separate appendix text was required.

The text is 3, A4 pages and contains 17, A3 diagrams.
The appendix is 11, A4 pages and contains 3, A3 diagrams.

December 2021
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3930

CURIOUS ADDITIONS TO TWO ATLASES DATED 1550 & 1565, NOTES AND PLANETARY CIRCUITS, DISTANCES AND DIAMETERS

The front cover lining has pencil notes appended regarding the previous ownership and attribution

The rear cover lining is an “Astronomical Text” which can be traced to an Italian Cosmographer, Companus of Novara (1220-1296) and Arab astronomers of the 9th century. The examination of those texts led finally to Roger Bacon and his Opus Majus.

The text is 12, A4 pages and has 3, A3 diagrams,

December 2021
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3937 3939 3944

VATICAN BORGIANA V, 1445-1448: ANDREAS BIANCO, 1448 AND FRA MAURO, 1448-1453; EXPLORING THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PLANISPHERE BY DISCUSSING THE KNOWN FACTS

The Fra Mauro Planisphere is housed in the Biblioteca Marciana, Venice, and has been the subject of two books, one in 1956 and the latest by Professor Piero Falchetta in 2006. This latest text included a detailed listing of toponyms and textual notes and was accompanied by a reactive CD scan of the planisphere.

This narrative uses the excellent work of Professor Falchetta and seeks to find the path that Fra Mauro followed to produce the 1960mm diameter planisphere which is a work of outstanding beauty and was preceded by other smaller portolans, equally well drawn.

This text evaluates the scale of the planisphere and thus contradicts the Book regarding its construction merely by following the path Fra Mauro took in its production. The work of the copyist who produced the Vatican Borgiana V Portolan chart and the work of Andreas Bianco are obviously keys to the whole subject. Finally it questions just when it was finally finished?

The text is 9, A4 pages and contains 22, A3 diagrams

January 2022
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3973

ChFM1 Images

ChFM/1/D01 ChFM/1/D02 ChFM/1/D03 ChFM/1/D04 ChFM/1/D05 ChFM/1/D06 ChFM/1/D07 ChFM/1/D08 ChFM/1/D09 ChFM/1/D10 ChFM/1/D11 ChFM/1/D12 ChFM/1/D13 ChFM/1/D14 ChFM/1/D15 ChFM/1/D16 ChFM/1/D17 ChFM/1/D18 ChFM/1/D19 ChFM/1/D20 ChFM/1/D21 ChFM/1/D22

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4015

THE THIRD FRAGMENT OF A PORTOLAN CHART DISCOVERED IN THE NOTARIAL ARCHIVES, MALTA, 2021

Contacted again by the Notarial Archives of Malta, when they discovered in 2021 this larger fragment of a Portolan Chart it was a pleasurable surprise and a wonderful challenge. Because of the ensuing travel restrictions it was not possible for me to fly to Malta (yet again) and I had to rely upon the Archival staff who were charged with securing the Archives for posterity to photograph as best possible the remnant.

They have taken numerous photos which are all pre-restoration state of the fragment and that made the task more challenging, but, a systematic approach was required as well as some specific photographs that were requested and supplied to supplement the data..

This short narrative text relates the research story as it unfolded over the year to the point where the cartographer was discovered with the help of those on Malta. However, it is only a preliminary narrative text as the contents will clearly indicate.

The text contains 06, A4 pages and has 15, A3 diagrams.

April 2022
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4036 4076

MAJORCA AND MESSINA INFLUENCE PORTOLAN CHARTS THE RUBEUS/RUSSUS AND OLIVES FAMILIES; HISTORICAL

Rather late in the context of Majorcan/Catalan influences, but having written ChGME/1 linking those charts by author and teacher which basically finished as a text c1500AD, this text nominally follows two dynasties from c1470 to c1640. It concentrates on information on those who influenced them and whom they influenced but only the work of the Rubeus/Russus Family is fully discussed. The Olives family is basically noted as a time line and it should be noted that the first two Olives family cartographers have 35 charts between them extant. They are included as the Cartografia Mallorquina listings combine them and the cross fertilisation through the ages can be indicated.

However, the preceding text, ChCGM/1, sets down the basic facts concerning the first (?) chart by Petrus Rubeus, that once owned by Conte Giuliano Merenda of Forli and the full research texts I found from the 1880’s , 1957 and 1970. They are only referred to here-in and thus for the full storyline that text should be analysed first, particularly the appendices.

Prior to my conclusions on this text there is a section headed “Why did Petrus Rubeus leave Majorca for Messina?” This is an attempt to reconcile many questions which arise in this text and have perplexed me and endeavour to answer the question, Why Messina?
Finally I have appended the text from ChGME/1 Appendix which discusses Rubeus/Russus.

The text is 9 (25) A4 pages and contains 31 (27 +4 APP) A4 and A3 diagrams.

May 2022
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4119

ChMAJ1 Images

ChMAJ/1/D01 ChMAJ/1/D02 ChMAJ/1/D03 ChMAJ/1/D04 ChMAJ/1/D05 ChMAJ/1/D06 ChMAJ/1/D07 ChMAJ/1/D08 ChMAJ/1/D09 ChMAJ/1/D10 ChMAJ/1/D11 ChMAJ/1/D12 ChMAJ/1/D13 ChMAJ/1/D14 ChMAJ/1/D15 ChMAJ/1/D16 ChMAJ/1/D17 ChMAJ/1/D18 ChMAJ/1/D19 ChMAJ/1/D20 ChMAJ/1/D21 ChMAJ/1/D22 ChMAJ/1/D23 ChMAJ/1/D24 ChMAJ/1/D25 ChMAJ/1/D26 ChMAJ/1/D27 ChMAJ/1/D28 ChMAJ/1/D29 ChMAJ/1/D30 ChMAJ/1/D31

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4275

BARTOLOMEO OLIVES, CHARTS AND ATLASES

In studying the charts and atlases, I noted that there was a significant number of Mythical Animals and Christian Iconography there-on. Bartolomeo Olives is obviously “Catholic Majorcan” and thus I would expect there to be some reference such as the vignette of the Madonna and Child on the neck of the vellum, but, having written ChBAO/1, a text detailing the Bartolomeo Olives chart dated 1584, which I sub-headed “History Writ Large on a Chart” I was not surprised to see that others were so detailed.

Thus the criteria for this text, starting with his probable cartographic training and thence his move from Palma Majorca to Messina Sicily, was to determine just what his raison d’être was for appearing to be an educator as well as a cartographer.

Please note that I have a copy of all Bartolomeo Olives’ Atlases and charts except a privately owned chart, as noted. However not all of them are actually shown as copies but are all described here-in; certain charts as noted may be extant but missing.

The text is 20, A4 pages and contains 23, A3 diagrams

October 2022
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4282

ChBOL1 Images

ChBOL/1/D01 ChBOL/1/D02 ChBOL/1/D03 ChBOL/1/D04 ChBOL/1/D05 ChBOL/1/D06 ChBOL/1/D07 ChBOL/1/D08 ChBOL/1/D09 ChBOL/1/D10 ChBOL/1/D11 ChBOL/1/D12 ChBOL/1/D13 ChBOL/1/D14 ChBOL/1/D15 ChBOL/1/D16 ChBOL/1/D17 ChBOL/1/D18 ChBOL/1/D19 ChBOL/1/D20 ChBOL/1/D21 ChBOL/1/D22 ChBOL/1/D23

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4288

ALI IBN AHMAD IBN MUHAMMAD al-SHARAFI al-SAFAQUSI EXTANT WORKS, TWO ATLASES AND A WORLD MAP

Although two excellent texts regarding the work of the al-Sharafi family of Sfax Tunisia exist, they do not address the works from a draughtsmanship or even technical stand point which is necessary when it is stated they are all “copies”(?) of other cartographers work. Also those two texts do not utilize the statements within the three extant works to uncover a strange story line. Even acknowledged experts on Islamic works have missed their importance as these would not have been written if not correct, or at least highly indicative.

Within the al-Sharafi works are excellent hints at the actuality of what is extant and what is missing. This text uses the words of the al-Sharafi clan to uncover a story line and discuss the very apparent errors on the atlases and chart(s).

The text contains 15, A4 pages and 20, A3 diagrams (Appendix included as text)

January 2023
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4314 4555 4540

THE KING-HAMY CHART NOTED AS BY BAPTISTA AGNESE AND DATED TO C1554; REALLY?

A new text published in “Imago Temporis. Medium Aevum, XVI (2022) pp389-432, endeavors to make the case for the unknown author/cartographer of the King-Hamy chart to be Baptista Agnese and the date not 1502 but 1536-1564.

This text queries both arguments and discusses the proposed date change for the Baptista Agnese 1514 to 1554, (Wolfenbuttel).

The text is 04, A4 pages and contains 09, A3 diagrams.

November 2023
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4570

ENGLISH COSMOGRAPHERS AND THEIR VIEW OF BRITANNIA

In the 1500’s surveying became of age when Gemma Frisius, in Louvain Belgium, published a treatise in which he described the method of surveying known as “Triangulation”. This was widely taken up and several works were published to aid the surveyor.

In the late 1500’s Christopher Saxton published a set of 34 maps of the counties of Britannia and thus a real problem arose, just what is a “Mile” as it varied throughout the kingdom, and just what was surveyed.

Then in 1577, William Camden an English Antiquarian became the first author of a Chorographical Survey of Britannia, including the Islands of Great Britain and Ireland. It was first published in 1586, in Latin. with many editions to follow and gradually it was translated into English. In his 1607 edition, it was based on maps by Christopher Saxton and John Norden. However, in the later 1695 edition in English, the maps of Robert Morden were used and re-issued in 1722, 1753 and 1772. The 1722 edition is here-in used.

The next great cosmography was by John Speed with his atlas, “The Theatre of the Empire of Great Britaine” dated 1611 in which he sets down 66 maps of the counties of England, Wales and Ireland. It is a work that borrows heavily from existing maps.

Then John Ogilby in 1675 and 1712 wrote two texts. The first being “The Traveller’s Guide” which is a complete descriptive text of the travels to measure the Roads and their lengths with a measuring wheel. He describes how to allow for the “Hilly” sections of extra travel distance and thus has several methods of measurement mentioned in his text. It is a comprehensive study of the Roads and the Journey’s features and commenced generally from London and the “Cornhill Standard”, but also includes country roads.

John Ogilby’s second text is a tour de force in presentation being a work of 100 strip maps showing the Roads of Britain at a scale of 1 inch to 1 mile.

This text investigates them all and particularly some of the maps by Robert Morden and John Speed in an endeavor to quantify the many varying scales and Mile length used both in surveying and the maps. It varies in timescale from 1542 to c1764 with maps from 1574 to 1675 and then 1722 and 1764.

The text is 13, A4 sheets and 32, A3 diagrams

December 2023
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4614

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4664

MATTEO RICCI, JESUIT PRIEST, MATHEMATICIAN & CARTOGRAPHER. HIS 1602 WORLD MAP, “KUNYU WANGUO QUANTU” DISCUSSED FOR ITS FORTUITOUS & SERENDIPITOUS LAYOUT GRATICULE.

The 1602 map is covered in texts, place names and geographical information which includes its setting out in a form of rectangular elliptical projection. It utilises the curved meridians to replicate on a flat plane the spherical nature of the Earth itself. This form of projection is in many guises on maps of the 1500’s, with variations mainly to the radii setting out. It has also in the corners four small charts on an azimuthal projection. This is studied and the setting out confirmed. Matteo Ricci, born 6 October 1552, died 11 May 1610, China.

ChMR/1/ABS

In the maps appended text Matteo Ricci states; “Now the real shape of the earth is spherical, where-as in the present map it is a flat surface, so that the truth of the matter is not easily comprehended at a glance. Therefore, again following the plan adopted in my own country, I also drew two hemispheres, one showing all that lies north of the equator, and the other all that lies south of it, the two poles falling exactly in the centre of the hemispheres, so as to give some idea of the real shape of the earth.” Thus we are told it was an Italian Map he has copied for these hemispheres.
Also in the text appended he clearly states ,”The prime meridian passes through the Fortunate Islands; hence Nanking is situated , 32N latitude and 128E longitude”. However, he then choses to set the perimeter bordure of the map 10° to the west of those Islands; Why?.

Then either fortuitously or a serendipitous occurrence we see that at 10° east the Islands and the west coast of Africa is marked ( it is actually at 17° W geog), and at 20° further east we have a meridian passing directly through LONDON, and correctly through the Mediterranean Sea and Africa marking the Geographical Longitude for the World.
Following that, why precisely 180° from the western bordure is the meridian set along what is obviously the International Date Line, set through the furthest east point of the major Eurasian Continent adjacent to the Bering Strait?

Regarding the Equator, he write as follows; “This central line of equal days and nights, divides the earth into two equal parts. All that lies above it is north, all below it is south. The countries lying near this line the seasons are each a month and a half in duration, there being eight seasons altogether in the year, two springs, two summers, two autumns, and two winters. The four seasons of the Northern region are opposite of those in the southern region: when it is spring in the north, it is autumn in the south: when it is summer in the north, it is winter in the south. The reason apparently is that the rays of the sun have to travel a greater or lesser distance, respectively.” Thus apart from the first section of that text, it clearly shows an understanding of the tilt of the earth and thus the change of seasons.
Thus we have a rather surprising set of occurrences drawn on a map of 1602, indicating decisions taken in the 19th century and these must be investigated.

The text is 08 A4 Pages and contains 14 A3 diagrams. It contains a copy of text MS7 as an appendix and then totals 21 pages including MS7 diagrams.

February 2024
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4695 4705

CATALAN ATLAS- DECONSTRUCTED FOR THE DATA AND THE MISSING FOLIO IS TENTATIVELY RECONSTRUCTED. THIS IS A NARRATIVE PAPER.

The first paper ChCATA/1 published in February 2019 was a brief exercise of analysis to ascertain the physical works to produce the Atlas, its construction and knowledge c1375CE.

The paper determined that it was not a coherent single work in that the folios were based upon two setting out forms. A set of horizontal or latitudinal lines and a wind rose with a different basis. It also concluded that only one junction of the folios was accurate, one had major over-lapping which in the south was awry and the 3rd/4th extant folios did not in fact join at all. The conclusion was that between folios 3 and 4 or sub-folios 6/7 there was a missing folio.

At the time of writing ChCATA/1, the very arduous work load of identifying each and every town on those sub-folios was not possible and hence the obvious positional problems and duplications were not discussed. It was also perhaps a “lost cause project” as without the missing folio, many assumptions that were required could not be tested.

However, that work has now been carried out and the missing folio c650 x 500mm tentatively infilled with some missing geography. Obviously it is a “curates egg” just as the original Catalan Atlas is.

It is up to the readers of this latest text to make up their minds on the proposals.

The text is 08, A4 pages and contains 16, A3 diagrams.

April 2024
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