688

CAUSSE LAND DIVISIONS EXPLORED: Ladevesse, LA Deveze, La Garrigue

The population of France was by the seventeenth century approaching 25 million inhabitants, making it the largest in Europe. There was also, as now, a very large forested area which did not permit crop growing and therefore the production of food for the populace. Thus, land which would not normally have been utilized for general farming was subdivided and where possible even vines were planted. But in general this land was only fit for grazing animals, mostly sheep. This usage continued from the Ancient Regime through to the First Republic and its provenance can be traced by the extra-ordinary land form it generated.

8 A4 pages and 9 full colour diagram maps

April 2010
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703

FOLLOW THE BARLEYCORN: The Beginnings of Metrology

Practically everything we do in life requires measurement. That measuring of anything requires metrology. In cartography we use all forms of measures, metrology, mathematics and geometry to form the maps and data we wish to portray. Without measure there would be no scale or proportion.
Where the original measurements came from is a fascinating historical journey which indicates just how adept our forefathers were when faced with the necessity to compare goods.

5 A4 pages and 4 full colour diagram maps

May 2010
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764

WHAT CAME BEFORE THE ENGLISH STATUTE SYSTEM, NOT ROMAN BUT ANCIENT METROLOGY.

There is a very large gap in the historical records regarding the metrology of ancient Britain, and England in particular. That the Romans came, imposed their standards and left is totally recorded and dealt with at length in hundreds of scientific or archaeological papers. That the ancient Britons built quite fantastic monuments of wood or stone is also totally recorded. What is missing from the record however is how ancient man controlled the construction of those monuments, the measures utilized to plan and then produce wooden beams and shaped stones to fit quite precisely into position? Even when archaeologists and historians have the evidence in front of them it is often ignored because of a lack of metrological training. This paper seeks to redress the balance and explore the possibility of a coherent megalithic metrology.

Powerpoint Presentation

14 A4 pages and 11 full colour diagram maps

May 2010
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770

AN EXPLORATION OF THE BEGINNINGS OF METROLOGY The number 7 and irrational numbers √2, √3 & PI

Megalithic measurements which are derived from Stone or wooden Post circles have generally been denigrated. Archaeologists have not bothered to investigate if there could be a quantum measure, holding to the line that until a measuring stick is excavated there is no proof; Historians have generally ignored the subject, many being unfamiliar with geometry. Some mathematicians have entered the fray both for and against the possibility.
Even today if the term Megalithic Metrology is inserted in a search engine the general response is to place it on-line with a sub-title “pseudoscientific metrology”.
However there are too many coincident measures to dismiss the possibility so lightly.
The texts Ms2 and Ms3 endeavoured to show by example the possible measures and their inter-connectivity. This paper explores their probable origins.
This paper presents research, speculation, as is only possible now, and takes its ethos from the Latin,
Uno itinere non potest perveniri ad tam grande secretum.
It is impossible to solve so great a puzzle by using one route only!

6 A4 pages and 5 colour diagrams.

June 2010
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779

TO MESOAMERICA AND MISSISSIPPI VIA MESOPOTAMIA, THE INDUS VALLEY AND EUROPE; CONTINUOUS SURVEYORS LANGUAGE AND MEASURES EXIST ACROSS THE WHOLE LANDSCAPE.

Within my text Ms3, “What came before the English Statute System, not Roman, but Megalithic measures”, I limited the discussion concentrating solely on Britain and Europe, with a minor comment about Mohenjo-daro. This paper commences at the very beginnings of survey measurement in Mesopotamia, c4000 to 3000BCE, then introduces Indus Valley measurements , before discussing Megalithic Europe in a cursory manner this time; it then moves to Mesoamerica and finally to the Mississippian culture of the southern USA.

My original texts on measurement, Ms2, Ms3 and Ms4 are to be found on this page. They are also on my Academia.edu page; with all papers free downloads with diagrams. I would urge anybody interested in this subject to look at Ms3 and the Power point presentation of the text prior to reading this text.

This text is 11 A4 pages and then there are 17 A4 diagrams.

September 2016
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793

JAIME FERRER, 1495 AND JEAN FERNEL, 1528 PROBLEMATIC SURVEYS AT SEA AND ON LAND

In 1481 Pope Sixtus IV confirmed in his Bull, “Aeternis Regis”, the sphere of influence for Portugal and Spain in the Atlantic Ocean. This eventually became known as the Line of Demarcation. In 1495, Jaime Ferrer [1], cosmologist, wrote to Their Majesties of Castile two letters explaining the 370 league distance measure that was incorporated in the Bulls. In 1528, Jean Fernel, a Frenchman, wrote “Cosmotheoria” [2], a text dedicated to King Jaoa II of Portugal and there-in indicated a methodology to determine a degree of latitude measurement. Both however indicated a spurious measurement consisting of 700 stades which was derived from Eratosthenes “Geographia”. There was therefore in that age a complete lack of understanding of the measurements and thus errors in research. However, the greatest problem appears to be the research into the voyage of 1492 and the distance measure of C Columbus described in various terms but never detailed correctly.

The whole text is 17 A4 pages including appendices and 3 diagrams.

March 2017
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809

Monalosphaerium; Cosmotheoriae & de Proportionibus J F Fernel, Measurements; Accuracy & Fantasy Abound

J F Fernel wrote three texts which indicate his first studies, mathematics and astronomy. Here-in they are evaluated, but only “Monalospharium” and “Cosmotheoriae” are completely investigated, whilst “de Proportionibus” is simply explained. Thus the measurements involved, the length of a degree of latitude and basic geometry, which includes Euclidian methods are all discussed. It is obvious that J F Fernel is using the work of Claudius Ptolemy, he notes the Almagest text, but his greatest usage is of “Geographike Hyphegesis” when he discusses latitude and longitude, although somewhat at variance.
However all three texts as published are full of errors; the figures are awry and the calculations leave a lot to be desired with a lack of explanation of their basic components.
It is obvious from the construction of the three books that they were compiled between c1520 and 1525 thus allowing publication in 1526 and 1528. The errors are twofold being both original and printer/publisher as the errata do not cover the most obvious. Thus it is clear that the three books were written from notes taken over the 5 years, transcribed at a later date and thus errors were made. However the idea and work involved in measuring the land surface to determine the degree of latitude cannot be criticised; it is a pity as will be shown that a modicum of inaccuracy crept into the methodology and J F Fernel was swayed by spurious measurement comparisons. Some never actually existed and are mathematical enigmas. Basically all three texts require to be carefully read before accepted as correct.
The text is 17 A4 pages and contains 15 A4 diagrams.

June 2017
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