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Study HOC3/1/ch7 by Professor Corradino Astengo and look at the known chart/atlas list appended. There-in is a list (1987) of all known cartographic entities and those for Baptista (agnese) are generally noted as “perhaps” and “undated”, having merely a 16th century notation. H R Wagner, “The Manuscript Atlases of Battista Agnese” (Bibliographical Society of America) listed 68 Atlases, and Professor Astengo endeavoured to give an overview of the whole in his chapter when he wrote about Venetian Cartography.

Neither text detailed the Portolan Charts, nor has there been a major text analysing them. There are two texts by Giuseppe Caraci concerning the Wolfenbuttel and Trieste charts and another written by Krisztina Iras concerning the NSZL Budapest chart as a PhD Thesis. As this text is being prepared another text is ready for publication by Chet Van Duzer discussing the “King Hamy” chart held in the Huntington Library. Each of them helps to illuminate the darkness surrounding “Baptista (agnese) Januensis” and HOC3/1/Ch7 assists.

Nota; Professor Corradino (Dino) Astengo suffered from cancer and passed away on the 16th January 2022. He was a good friend a gentleman and a scholar who for History will be sorely missed.


On the first charts and atlases which are signed he uses “Baptista Januensis fecit Venetiis” indicating that he considers himself a native of Genoa but practised in Venice. What seemed very curious to me from the outset was that he signed “Baptista Janeunsis” and not a family name. When finally he signed “Baptista agnese Januensis fecit venetiis”, he was clearly using majuscules for Baptista, Januensis and Venetiis but utilized a miniscule for the family (?) name “agnese”. That struck me as decidedly odd and I wondered if it was actually indicating something else. Perhaps I should not have been surprised as he could just have been copying someone else. Vesconte de maiolo for instance used the same method.

That posed the first problem as previous writers had written thus; “What is strange is that practically nothing is known of the man whose personality and output dominated the cartography of the sixteenth century, and what little we do know has to be deduced directly from the works themselves”.
Not satisfied with this analysis, my first task whilst looking for more information and charts was to approach the Archives of Genoa and Liguria for possible dating information and then the Archives of Venice for data upon his workshop and possible employees. Such a prodigious output was too much for one person to achieve in the timescales given and I assumed as an employer the fact would be recorded.
My starting point was the presumption that the chart held in Wolfenbuttel and attributed thus, “Baptista Januensis f. Venetiis MCCCCCXIV (f) Julii” was the first extant chart and thus from that I could retrospect his early life from the norms of the age as I had fully discussed in my text ChGEN/1. Firstly, if he was born in Genoa and departed for Venice to work then that would have occurred after his 21st birthday when he had his majority freedom. It was then logical to allow him time to establish a workshop, suppliers of Ink and Vellum and that provided the following timescale.

BORN c1490- youth until c1500 – trained until 1510 and majority 1511 allowing him the time required to establish and draw the 1514 chart, in Venice.

I therefore started searching any records available (Storia Patria etc) but unless he was specifically named it required a Notarial Record, which may well have been available and written later, but without any idea of the Notaire it was a non-starter.

However, the Archivist at Regione Liguria was a great help with numerous references and I have appended email copies from Giuseppe Carlo Pavoletti to enable future researchers to perhaps solve the problem.

I also contacted Enrico Isola, Archivist for the City of Genoa who informed me that the name Baptista agnese did not appear in any records available.

Lastly I contacted Venice and Andrea Erbosa, Funzionario archivist di Stato searched their records without finding any reference at all and commented that the possibility of searching the Notarial Records existed but for that it was necessary to know the Notaire involved. Obviously a non-starter again as I found in Genoa.

But Professor Astengo, in HOC3/1/ch7, page 215 wrote;

“Finally, there are the quite exceptional cases in which entire sheets have been given over to veritable pictures, intended to further adorn a work clearly intended for some high-ranking client. Examples of these illustrations are the picture of Atlas holding the World (in the atlas that belonged to Charles V), and the portrait of a young man receiving the earthly globe from God (in the atlas Charles V gave to his son Philip II), and two mythological scenes plus the curious depiction of two Atlases together- one holding the globe while the other measure it (these latter scenes are the work of some unknown artist clearly inspired by the style of Italian mannerism).”

I was quite perturbed to read that paragraph and consider that the Venetian archives did not record him at all. If Baptista agnese had high ranking clients, even Charles V and Philip II, I was certain a record would exist. However, I also thought that it could mean Baptista agnese was selling his Atlases to third parties who were having them adorned and then selling them on to “factors” for the great and the good! Thus Baptista agnese need not even be aware of who held his atlases, and the fact that many European ruling family libraries had them was surely an indication of this method of acquisition. I also noted that from 1501 to 1570 there were 10 Doge of Venice and from 1492 to 1590, 8 Patriarchs of Venice whom I thought would be “clients” if the inference by Professor Astengo was correct. (See Afterwords)

When I sent my email (as above) to Regione Liguria, I actually wrote that in 1514 he did not give his family name and wondered if in fact if it was not “agnese”. I had also asked the Archivist in Genoa for the names of the Maggiolo family in the records wondering if in fact this was a similar episode to the Reinel Family of Lisbon, when the son Jorge Reinel departed prior to his majority and his Father Pedro Reinal had to “hot-foot” it to Seville to recover him. I already had the “Storia Patria” records for the Maggiolo family and the Archivist did not produce any further information to assist this quest.

But this problem persisted and the “Atlante di 33 carte” held in the Biblioteca Marciana, Venice, It. IV. 62(=5067) provided yet another quandary to solve. Folio 36, carte di Francia has noted, A f.10. verso il marg.sinistro, si legge: “No(ta) Baptista Palnese (corr.agnese) fecit Venetijs anon Domini 1554 die 30 octobris”

In the bulletin of the Societe Languedocienne de geographie, 1908, pp8-78, L. Malavialle notes that “le nom Palnese substitute par surcharge a Agnese, en verta de l’addition du “P” et de la transformation du “g” to “l”. On le reconnait a la difference de l’encre et de l’ectiture”. He goes on to point out that the signature Baptista Januensis is used several times in early atlases. However, on page 49 he also notes the name as Giambaptista Agnses ( see Uzielli and Amat) but writes the name for the Marciana atlas as “de Battista Palmesi(?), which he repeats on Page 50 also.
From the same atlas another mystery is solved.


A new text has just been posted online through Imago Mundi, volume 72 part 1, pp 47-51 entitled “The Reappearance of the Lost Map of Muscovy by Paolo Giovio (1525).” Written by Professor Giampiero Bellingeri and Professor Marica Milanese, it tells the story of the engraving discovery in the Biblioteca Nationale Marciana c2006 and discusses its provenance. I am here-in paraphrasing the text of Professor Milanese as follows;

“The recovery of Giovio’s map makes it necessary to say something about Battista Agnese’s manuscript map of Moschoviae which he dates as MDXXV octobris, but it is in a signed and dated atlas by Baptista agnese (Marciana MS It.IV. 62 (5067) folio 25, and is attributed thus; “Baptista agnese fecit Venetijs anno domini 1554 die 30 octobris” and is a 60 x 40 cm manuscript on paper. Thus given that Agnese’s map is a modified version of Giovio’s and the 16th century habit of making hand-drawn copies of printed geographical maps in circulation, commonly carried out for many Venetian maps by Baptista agnese and Giorgio Calapoda removes it from the listings”.

Thus the period from 1514 to 1536 appears taken up with the drawing of the first eight Portolan Charts and as others have noted probably several of the undated atlases.


At this point it was obvious only a researcher in Italy could look at all the records. But my last hiccup was “why did everybody write Battista when he wrote Baptista and then Giam baptista?

I questioned an Italian academic who responded as follows; “I think that the transformation of Baptista, Battista and then Giambattista is indeed very plausible and this is what I would have thought”. Thus I gave up this search!



I return to my assumption of Age and that the timescale was in all probability; Born 1490, trained 1500/1510; majority 1511 and departed for Venice with first chart 1514.

In Genoa from 1490 -1511 we have, as my previous text ChGEN/1 illustrated several cartographers which were tabulated on three diagrams. I have reproduced a chart for that same purpose which notes the cartographers available and the works of Baptista Januensis. The original list was: Albino de Canepa, Vesconte de Maggiolo, Nicolo de Caverio, The King Hamy chart and then GB Agnese. The text concentrated solely on Genoese cartographers but omitted peripatetic cartographers such as Petrus Rubeus of Messina who produced two charts in Gentilli/Janua, dated 1506 and 1511. In my text ChMAJ/1 on page 14 “Petrus Rubeus, an interim comment” I mentioned the differences between his charts drawn in Messina and those in Genoa. The text is as follows;

“With only four charts extant, two drawn in Genoa and two possibly in Messina (one definitely), it all depends on the attribution date for the mutilated chart just discussed to determine where Petrus Rubeus actually spent most of his time as a cartographer. Thus we could be looking at a different actuality of the 1508 MMB chart drawn in Messina being the return to Messina for his sons training there. The chart given as 1511 is noted as “Ego P.R—- in la nobili citate Janua—in — ano XI— Jesu Xto amen.”

It is as if Petrus Rubeus/Petro Russu has two personalities, one in Messina and the other in Genoa. In Messian his Majorcan training influence is to the fore, but in Genoa he encompasses their tradition of cartographical expression.

The subtlety of the Forli and the BnF(1511) charts against the 1508 Madrid charts rather OTT vignettes of the northern cities is at least partly returned on the BnF GE B 1425 chart, although the African section reverts to the standard Majorcan “Kings” without text and two poorly drawn animals, a Camel and an Elephant with Castle. This last chart also has the Levant removed as discussed probably another fold line. However the roughly drawn Atlas Mountains certainly follow Majorcan Charts.”

When that text was written any thought of this text was not in my mind, but the moment I started studying the Baptista agnese Portolan Charts I was immediately returned to the Petrus Rubeus text and charts. The first is the “Forli “chart described in my text ChCGM/1 which features large vignettes of Genoa and Venice among other much smaller ones and is a feature of all four charts. The 1508 chart (Messina) has four poorly drawn camels, but the damaged BnF GE B 1425 chart, with camel and Elephant/castle and both the “Forli” and that chart feature the Virgin and Child.

This long explanation is because Petrus Rubeus for unknown reasons travelled to Genoa from Messina twice to draw charts and on both occasions the timing coincides with “Baptista Januensis” being trained and perhaps preparing to leave for Venice. And, as the De Maggiolo family was in Genoa with only room for one official cartographer, he left.

But it is also a distinct possibility the “Baptista Januensis” was trained by Albino de Canepa and Vesconte de Maggiolo, was able to study the work of Nicolo de Caverio and Petrus Rubeus, thus he was able to be selective in his usage of elements from each and formulate his own style. It is also possible that Petrus Rubeus informed him of the Majorcan method of portraying the winds as faces (Pere Rossel 1464 e.g.) and the fact that animals, Camel/Elephant are on his charts and later features of “Battista Januensis”.




Having obtained copies of 13 charts I proceeded to evaluate their contents. This was aided by two texts I had downloaded years ago by Michael C Andrews, his 1924 and 1929 papers regarding “The Boundary between Scotland and England in Portolan Charts” and “Scotland in the Portolan Charts”. In those texts he concentrates on mostly atlases and establishes twelve groupings. Type X, Agnese (early) and Type XI Agnese (late) and illustrates the variations by diagrams. In the second paper it is similarly treated but the basic idea is maintained.

Thus when the Baptista agnese charts are examined the form of Scotland and its coast can be used to assist identifying a probable sequence. That sequence is illustrated on the diagrams with descriptive notes for the major items and how I have linked them by similarities. It becomes quite apparent that they are a “mix and match” group with only one major difference, the change from Scotland as an Island as charts Nos 1 to 7, to Scotland joined , chart No 8 which is a hybrid, and then joined but given a geographical form as charts 9 to 14 illustrate. Thus the charts themselves can now be illustrated and discussed.


ChBapa/1/D04 & D05

Probably Baptista Januensis first chart signed and dated 1514. If my assumption is correct apropos his birth date, then this chart is a highly accomplished first chart, beautifully drawn and decorated. It is produced with a “light touch”, the mountain ranges are not overbearing and the vignettes of the 19 rulers are excellently drawn, as is the Virgin and Child. These it will later be noted are features of other cartographer’s charts. There is also a Ship or Galleon typical of the age and rendered full sail. The chart however, has what will be a curious feature of others, a Star in the West, but where others have this some also have the eight points with the Wind Letters and sometimes a circle: A developing idea!

There are two different styles of wind roundel which follow through on other charts. Particularly notable are the two city vignettes for Genoa and Venice, set rather large and which do not appear again. The chart is c910 x 540mm and possibly reduced in the East as there is no sign of the normal fixing holes for a timber scroll. My linkage comment is that it appears to be a simpler version (as noted) of the Gottingen Chart but the N. Coast of Scotland varies and it is not with a “Light Touch”.


ChBapa/1/D06, D07 & D08

This is a “Full On” Portolan Chart extending from the Atlantic Ocean where it has obviously been cut back to remove the Neck and thus probably also decoration and the attribution text. It extends to the Caspian Sea and the Persian Gulf in the East. North South it extends from Norway to the Southern Red Sea and Prester John, written as “Pretani”.

Curiously the measurements given, “Hand drawing on parchment, orientated to N, 890 mm (965mm + tongue attachment) x 705mm”, it has obviously been cut back west and east but the measurement appears to reflect from the East to the African Coast.

It is similar to the Wolfenbuttel chart, but less restrained in the presentation of the mountains. It is also adorned with Wind Cherubs (a Majorcan idea) with the SW wind named “Garbi” There are forested areas and between the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea a feature, (query dots) which has a text adjacent, el deserto che passo el gran turcho sultan selim per andar al cairo”. This text is repeated on the No11 chart, but, includes at the end “anno domini 1516”. This must have been a rather significant event for the Venetian traders for it to be recorded, because in fact Sultan Selim left Trabzon and defeated the Mamluk forces near Aleppo and then near Cairo such that the Ottoman’s now controlled from the Balkans, the Black Sea, Syria, Palestine and Egypt. Hence it would have been well noted, and of course gives the earliest date for these two charts to have been drawn after 1516.


A very plain chart with normal Portolan Features and has obviously been cut back both east and West. It is an ideal presentation to produce simple Atlas folios from. There are two wind roundels and the NE roundel has the eight letters there-in with the SW being an “A” for Affricus. Scotland is drawn as an Island with “normal” coasts.

ChBapa/1/D09 & D10

The surprising feature is that the Wind Rose graticule is set out from the centre of Italy and taking into account the extra East and West sections of the graticule they form the Mediterranean Sea length from 9W to 26E and from the scale bar it is 45° x 72 Miliaria longitude.

The chart has firstly been compared to No 8 in the listings, but, when I investigated the “Forli” chart by Petrus Rubeus in text ChCGM/1 I produced as Diagram ChCGM/1/D07 a basic setting out of the Wind Rose graticule.



The result was that I noticed that it precisely detailed the length of the 36N latitude from 9W to 36E and was a very correct 45 degrees of 72 scale bar units, hence Miliaria. This is obviously a forerunner of the Uppsala methodology and I have produced a diagram for each at A3 to clearly indicate that similarity of the two charts.

This coincidence is discussed at length later.

4) BnF PARIS, GE B 5945, (a damaged chart);

ChBapa/1/D13 & D14

The chart is decorated and eight “emirs” or “kings” sit in Africa and Turkey, plus several towns and an Elephant and two Camels are still visible. Unfortunately Britannia is missing with other northern sections of the chart. It would have been a lightly decorated full Portolan Chart with the damage it has also been cut back in the east and west. However, there is sufficient information to consider a comparison to the following Trieste Chart, no5.


The chart is decorated with 9 “emirs or kings” in Africa, Turkey and Tartaria. There are several towns and also an Elephant and a camel drawn. The mountains in the East are as per chart No 4. This chart is squeezed onto the vellum north/south and cut back in the east. As the comparison indicates the differences between No4 and No 5 is irrelevant and thus they are in all probability a pair of charts drawn together.

ChBapa/1/D15 & D16



This is a plain chart similar to No3, Uppsala, but it includes items from other charts. Scotland is an Island but the North Coast is singularly drawn as the No1 chart, Wolfenbuttel. Again as No1, the “Star” appears in the West but now has the wind letters, and although cut back in the west they are seen. It is also cut back in the east. There are four wind roundels with two similar and two with ”stars”, but drawn differently. It is a standard Portolan, c775 x 540mm.

ChBapa/1/D18 & D19

7) BSB MUNICH, Cod, icon. 131

ChBapa/1/D20 & D21

A highly decorated chart with singularly drawn figures, 22 in total. It has Wind Cherubs and three roundels with the wind rose centred in Italy. It features a lone star in the west, repeated in two of the roundels. The mountain ranges are similar to No2, Gottingen. Scotland is still an Island with the north coast as per charts Nos 1 & 6. The chart extends to the Caspian Sea and Persian Gulf as per No2 also and it appears to be cut back in the east. To the West it includes the Azores as there it does not appear cut back.

It has been dated previously to c1505 which is clearly incorrect.

8) BnF PARIS GE B 2131

ChBapa/1/D22 & D23

A plain standard Portolan Chart with the wind rose centred in Italy and containing there a small circle at the centre of four matching roundels. This is the first chart to show Scotland joined to England, but the coastal profile is as previously seen. Thus it is a transitional chart for this geographical feature and thus falls in a dating period of early portolan charts.


ChBapa/1/D24 & D25

This is another full Portolan Chart with no decoration and obviously again for Atlas production. It has a “Star” in the west and four roundels, with the wind rose yet again set in Italy. Scotland, however, is drawn integrally with England and has morphed into a geographical form. It is the first of its kind. The Baltic Sea is still basically Ptolemaic in form.
Being the first full Portolan chart to have Scotland attached to England and geographical, dating becomes possible.



This is an Atlante of 29 charts, attributed as follows, “Baptista agnese fecit Venetijs anno dio 1553 die primo septemba”,

Thus we can clearly date the Parma chart to an earlier date and I have chosen 1550 because of the possibility of other atlases of this period.


ChBapa/1/D27 & D28

Again another full Portolan Chart with no decoration, but the first in years to have an attribution attached; “Baptista agnese fecit venetiis 1562 die 4 februarij”

Scotland is the new integrated geographical form and the chart has a “star” with wind letters but has obviously been cut back both east and west. The Baltic is Ptolemaic in form. It has been compared to No9, Parma, and no appreciable difference is noted. The wind rose is centered on Italy and has three roundels.


This is a fully decorated portolan Chart having part of the Caspian Sea and Persian Gulf included and can be clearly shown to be very similar to Charts Nos 1 & 2. This chart has six texts appended and has been the subject of a PhD Thesis (See annexe). It is as No2 with wind cherubs and the wind rose is centered on Italy yet again. Scotland is as per charts Nos 9 & 10, integral and geographical, with the standard Baltic Sea Ptolemaic.

Between the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea there is the same feature and a text equivalent to the No 2 chart Gottingen. It should also be compared to the Bodleian Library MS Ital 142 Atlas page, illustrated in the appendices.

ChBapa/1/D29 & D30

Of the texts given the one situate adjacent to the head of the Red Sea is as per No 2 with the addition of the date 1516. Thus I have dated that chart c1520. The texts are as follows; 1) along north adjacent to Tramontana 2) East of Sea of Azov 3) Under Pyrenees 4) by East wind face 5) Sinus Persicus 6) Head of Red Sea and a second below Mt Sina 7) N Africa 8) under Mauretania Caesariensis & 9) between the red Sea and the Nile.

They are similar to the Bartolomeo Olives 1584 Portolan (ChBAO/1) which is 20 years later, but it is obvious that with 9 texts each Baptista agnese may have started a trend. However given my text on Olives I think it is a memory item only.

12) BnF PARIS GE B 1134, (Eastern Med Sea only)


Basically a portion of a Portolan Chart with little decoration, but drawn to a large scale and is 90 x 146.6cms. It is the odd one out as it appears to have no purpose unless it was actually part of a large tableau of charts covering the normal Portolan area.

13) HUNTINGTON LIBRARY USA. HM45 (King Hamy Chart)

ChBapa/1/D32 & D33

This is a chart showing the known Europe and Africa of c1490 and also includes the first exploration chart for the Caribbean and northern S America. It extends to China in Ptolemaic format, the wind rose roundels are typically “Agnese” with a “star” in the west and a single ship in the southern ocean. In my text ChKHMW/1I discussed the chart and appended is a reference to a new text by Chet Van Duzer concerning the chart and its revised date?


This is included as it has all the same design features for Scotland and the Baltic Sea as previous charts Nos 9-11, but it is also attributed as follows; “ Baptista agnese fecit Venetiis anno dio 1564 die 25 mai”. Thus as the Catania chart No 10 is dated 1562 the progression is obvious.



The Portolan Charts of “Baptista Januensis agnese” clearly fall into two categories; 1) charts which are well decorated and thus prepared for sale and 2) charts which are undecorated and clearly for the use of assistants in drawing the individual folios of the Atlases which is not possible without a full chart to guide the divisions.

With the charts being cut back in the West such as No2 SUB Gottingen, it is obviously not intended to be used for the formation of an Atlas, but for sale and thus would in all probability have been signed and dated.

Thus charts 1,2,4,5,7&11 are drawn for sale and charts 3,6,8,9,10&12 are plain charts for Atlas production. But a thought that was engendered by the comment of others decorating these charts also made it possible that “Baptista Januensis agnese” was also preparing these plain charts for sale to “miniaturists” etc., as the workshop could not cope with such work. That to me made sense when you look at the so called client list and “Baptista Januensis agnese” is unknown.

We then see the definitive split in the charts format for Scotland, with charts 1 to 7 being in the original format for Scotland; chart8 the transitional chart and charts 9 to 12 (I exclude 13 and 14) being the later geographical format for Scotland.

Hence my Diagram ChBapa/1/D01 illustrates the probable dating of these charts and infers when the “unknown” atlases were produced. It clearly negates a number of previous ideas for the dating of them.



As well as the problem of just who is Baptista/Gianbaptista Januensis or agnese, and the cartographers who may have trained him, I was intrigued by the number of visiting cartographers who worked in Venice for a short time whilst Baptista agnese was also present.

In HOC3/1/ch7, page 217, Professor Corradino Astengo makes the following statement; “In spite of the growing trade in printed maps and the availability of such complete works as Ptolemy’s Geography and Sebastian Munster’s Cosmography (both in various editions), the market for manuscript charts and atlases in Venice during the second half of the 16th century must have remained healthy, as it continued to attract a number of experts from outside. After having worked for some time in his native Palma, the Majorcan Bartolomeu Olives is known to have produced a 1559 atlas (UKO1) and a 1562 chart in Venice (264) probably stopping in the city for a few years on his way to continue his career in Messina and Palermo”

264 = sold in London at Sotheby’s June Sale. See Ian Mckay, “Bids and Pieces”, in Mercators World 6 (2000) 58-62, esp. 62.(this chart was sold to a private buyer for £80,000.)

1559 is the same year that Baptista Agnese produced an atlas in August after Olives in June. But, there is also a chart by Bartolomeu Olives dated 1562 and sold at auction by Sotheby’s. However, Baptista Agnese also produced a chart in 1562, No 10, Catania, “Baptista agnese fecit Venetiis 1562 die 4 februarj”. Thus I find it unlikely the two did not know of each other and did not meet.

We also see Giogio Sideri, alias Il Calapoda, a native of Crete who produced ten extant charts in Venice between 1541 and 1565, with a sizeable number dedicated to Venetian Patricians, something Baptista agnese does not do, but may be done by a factor. However Giorgio Sideri, Il Calapoda is mentioned in the Archives of Venice and Professor Marica Milanese penned an excellent text, “1550; Una Carta di Sintesi”, (1550; A summary chart) which includes a bibliography of IL Calapoda.

Thus, Sideri was in Venice 1541-1565 and agnese was in Venice 1514-1564; with the first well known and the second unknown. I therefore return to my previous question, is his name actually Agnese?

A text is written just as this text is being sent live to my website, and was halted for its inclusion, as follows.

In Volume 2022, Isssue 1 of the Calafia Journal, Jose Luis Gonzalo and Richard Pflederer authored a text entitled, “An Unrecorded Portolan Atlas of Battista Agnese Identified in Spain”. I quote as follows;

Rather, they were extremely fine, luxurious works of art intended for the libraries of important personages, such as Bishops, Cardinals, Abbots, Dukes and even Kings. Among the recipients of these atlases were two Kings, Henry VIII of England and Carlos I of Spain, who also held the title Carols V, Holy Roman Emperor.

The atlas, which is the subject of this article, contains an elaborate coat of arms drawn on a full page. It has been identified as that of Prince Philip of Spain, son of Carlos V, who would succeed his father as Philip II, King of Spain in 1555 and would assume the crown of Portugal in 1580.

Once the original owner had been identified, it was possible to trace the provenance of the gift, as recorded in the accounts of the imperial heir’s “Libro de Camara”. Two documents elaborate on both how and when the atlas came to be in Spain. The first confirms that the atlas was a gift from Diego Hurtado de Mendoza, Carlos V’s ambassador to Venice, to Prince Philip around the year 1546 when Philip was nineteen years old. —————–.

The second is another payment order from the prince’s office, this one to the noted painter and illuminator Diego de Arroyo, also in 1547, for painting “two royal coats-of-arms ofhis highness illuminated in gold, one in the atlas that Don Diego de Mendoca sent from Venice, the other on a separate parchment”.

Thus my comments regarding the fact that Baptista agnese need not have known anything about the recipients, they were purchased by an intermediary, or the decorations there-on holds good in the light of this later text. And, in HOC/3/1/Ch7 we read that extant are some 10 atlases which are finely illuminated by coats of arms (Baptista agnese) normally left a blank page at the front of the atlas for them. Thus he knew they were being sold onto others and probably gifted. And, in footnote 29 we read; “Here again it is difficult to say whether the work was commissioned or whether the coast of arms, dedication, and English names for the various winds were all added at a later stage”.

It suggest to me that Baptista agnese was just turning out as many atlases as he could and by not signing or dating them gave the factors and ambassadors the opportunity to further their own careers by sycophancy! I assume he made a very good living indeed.

1) Two emails from Giuseppe Carlo Pavlotti, Regione Liguria with reference details as 2x A3 pages.
2) Agnese, Battista (GE) 2xA3 pages of a list produced by Professor Corradino Astengo.
3) Paper by Dr Krisztina Iras. ELTE University Budapest. 2xA3 pages.
4) Summary of Krisztina Iras Phd Thesis, 2010, it was 10 A4 pages printed as 2, A3 pages.
5) Claudius Ptolemy Map 8 Europe, Book 3, Page 79 Geographia
7) Note from Chet Van Duzer as follows:

Van Duzer, Chet, “The King-hamy Chart at the Huntington Library: A historical Map made by Battista Agnese” forthcoming in Imago Temporis 16 (2022)

“Abstract. The anonymous manuscript world map known as the King-Hamy chart (San Marino, California, Huntington Library, HM45) was ascribe a date of c1502 by one of its early owners, Ernest Hamy, in 1886, and a similar date has been accepted for the chart ever since. Yet a number of the chart’s features raise questions about this date, handwriting and other stylist clues show it to have been made by the prolific Italian cartographer Battista Agnese, active from about 1536 to 1564, Agnese had made some historical maps in his manuscript atlases from the 1550’s, and the King-Hamy map is revealed here to be not a map of the world made c1502 in the early stages of European expansion, as a historical map made by Agnese to show the image of the world held by Europeans in the early stages of the European expansion”.










M J Ferrar, July 2022.